Ivermectin does not have beneficial effects against SARS-COV-2 -- These two will be quite long because there is quite a lot of peer-reviewed literature that will need to be cited, but if someone wants to try their hand at it, go for it! JFG (talk) 21:33, 22 January 2022 (UTC)
Claim: "Wiki-style rhetorical annotation is a better format for crowdsourcing than other alternatives" Reason for wanting this claim: It is implicit in the use of arguably.io that we are using a wiki-style frontend for rhetorical annotation. What other frontend and backends facilitate rhetorical annotation as well as continuous deployment of epistemic resources?
American women had no rights prior to their enfranchisement -- rights such as property rights, freedom of association, education of women, choice of profession &c.. There is a common misconception of the historically illiterate people with whom I've spoken, that women were denied the same freedoms as men had until they received the ballot and 'voted' their way to freedom. We ought to correct the record. Cyanide Taste Sampler (talk) 19:40, 25 January 2022 (UTC)
- Sure, but we would need cited examples of people claiming that explicitly and specifically. Because I know a lot of people appear to take that implicit stance but I'd like to see serious quoting of some people who have truly said that. JFG (talk) 21:45, 25 January 2022 (UTC)
- I suggest this video: "Jordan Peterson: “There was plenty of motivation to take me out. It just didn't work" | British GQ" on YouTube - from 7:34 to around the 13minute mark. However, she makes reference to it in Britain, rather than America. Her book may contain a more comprehensive review of all the talking-points regarding this subject in the West in general. GrapeSkoda (talk) 23:28, 26 January 2022 (UTC)
Race is a social construct -- The claim that race and ethnicity are non-existent and cannot be tracked, studied or categorised as a result. Those arguing against its existence often use the Continuum Fallacy. They also claim that phenotype is an arbitrary indicator of behaviour and genotype; one famous example being from Jane Elliot's eye-colour experiment and subsequent quote: "One race: The Human Race". People often use this experiment to demonstrate that physical differences are superficial, and negative perceptions on these superficialities causes poor performance - when in-fact the experiment does not demonstrate that all differences are superficial, nor that all negative behaviours are or are not a result of someone's genes. -- An extensively cited article can be written regarding the various fallacies used and ways in which race can be reliably categorised via gene-frequencies.
- Great idea. The claim is often presented in the form "Race does not exists" or "Race is a social construct." JFG (talk) 22:13, 26 January 2022 (UTC)
Diversity is a strength -- This argument is relative to the amount of diversity being presented. Some variation is arguably positive for a cooperative system (work, social-community, etc.) This argument presented today is usually referring to racial diversity, but also includes variations in sexuality and gender-identity. Arguably this has more detriment than not. In a work/goal environment, it can create conflict and strife, with the inability to agree on a mutually beneficial end-goal. It can also create imbalances in ability and competence, or create a target for others. This often leads to either bullying due to decreased social-viability and productivity, or protective-characteristics of the person who is bullied and/or less capable. These imposed restrictions and non-merit based preferential treatments can also affect productivity and wellbeing of groups pushed to the bottom of the protective hierarchy stack. It also affects who is more or less likely to be hired, reducing merit based hiring practice, which also limits productivity and sometimes quality. In a social-dynamic, there's evidence it reduces overall trust and social-cohesion; a likely result of behavioural, language and cultural barriers - as-well as our natural proclivity to seek genetic-similarity (best-friends are more likely to be genetically close, partners are often 3rd-Cousins, etc.)
- Counter Arguments: "Diversity is a weakness", "Too much diversity is a weakness", "Homogeneity is a strength".
You are born with your sexuality -- Many claim that sexuality is decided at birth. Although pre-natal hormone exposure can contribute to sexuality, as-well some evidence for genetic-components, there is evidence that female-sexuality is fluid. There are several studies, as-well as anecdotal evidence of self-identifying lesbians having sex with their male-roomates over the lockdown period of 2019/2020 -- one including a female journalist who detailed her encounter. There has been speculation in the past that male-homosexuality could be linked to adolescent or pre-pubescent sexual-assualt/abuse, but evidence largely suggests a mostly genetic and hormonal component. Studies suggest that post-fertility female homosexuality developed to function in a polygamous setting, where it would allow older-females to engage with other older or undesirable younger females in a crèche like setting. Evidence suggests that male-homosexuality is a mostly dysgenic mutation, as the body's salivary alpha-amylase glands are stimulated in the presence of male-homosexual acts.
- Counter Arguments: "You develop your sexuality", "Your sexuality can change", "Sexuality is a choice".
Humans have free-will -- A philosophical/biological argument regarding whether human-consciousness creates choice/free-will or if our actions and "choices" are a result of our physiology and bio-chemistry. Many types have arisen regarding this topic. The main ones being the Creationist standpoint of God-given free-will, the Biological Determinist/Materialist standpoint in which we are entirely driven by our physiology, biochemistry and external stimuli; arguments of Quantum physical facets, which include superposition relating to the Schrödinger's Cat experiment, Double-Slit Experiment, Many World's Hypothesis and other arguments regarding quantum-uncertainty and how it relates to consciousness/observation.
- Counter Arguments: "Humans do not have free-will".
White people have no culture -- A post-modern Leftist argument usually making the claim that all facets of culture originating from those of White-European descent is either appropriated, stolen or copied from non-White cultures/peoples.
- Counter Arguments: "White people have culture".
Louis Latimer invented the lightbulb -- One of many modern Historical Revisionist positions - usually espoused by Marxist/Leftist individuals attempting to exaggerate the accomplishments of people of African descent, usually at the behest of European inventors. The most notable example of this claim can be seen in the children's show "Steven Universe" on "Cartoon Network" (this can be found in a YouTube clip called: "Tell the Whole Story | The Crystal Gems Say Be Anti-Racist | Cartoon Network"). This position is argued on the false-premise that modification, improvement or additions made to an invention to make a commercial process more efficient, constitute initial invention of a product/item/device/technology. A similar point was argued with the invention of the Wind-Turbine -- equating it to the Windmill. Counter arguments also include the Wright Brothers invention of the Aeroplane being vastly different to a modern iteration. A steelman must be established as to what point an initial invention becomes a new invention that can be attributed to a different individual, and when one is simply a modification or improvement.
- Counter Arguments: "Thomas Edison invented the lightbulb", "Louis Latimer did not invent the lightbulb".
White Europeans started the African Slave Trade -- A modern misconception regarding the African Slave-Trade. Many groups participated heavily in the African Slave Trade, including Jewish people, Spanish/Latin people and African people themselves. Evidence suggests that African Warlords had been enslaving and selling other Africans long before other-groups arrived to buy, trade and own African Slaves. Many falsely believe that Europeans arrived on the continent and began kidnapping inhabitants with nets and cages.
- Counter Arguments: "White Europeans did not start the African Slave Trade", "Africans started the African Slave Trade".
Humans have an Alpha/Beta hierarchy -- Argument regarding whether or not humans and their varying populations abide a similar hierarchy to that of other Great-Apes (such as the chimpanzee). Modern Internet Memetics have made these dichotomies of "Alpha", "Beta" and the more modern "Zeta" or "Sigma". Some suggest that humans abide a more cooperative stance due to extreme variation in the way they can gather and increase resources. Other arguments are that the hierarchy is too relative and a dynamic can alter depending on the setting, for example: Elon Musk or Jeff Bezos can arguably be considered "Alpha" in the sense that they are able to gather and utilise resources effectively. However, in an uncivilised setting in which strength and/or combat are favoured, individuals of this calibre would likely fall to the bottom of the hierarchy. An argument could be made that humans do abide this structure, but in much more dyanmic, varied and/or fluid way.
- Counter Arguments: "Humans do not have an Alpha/Beta hierarchy".
Masturbation is unhealthy -- Modern cultural phenomena such as "No Nut November" have reignited the debate regarding masturbation and the positive or negative overall health impacts. Studies have suggested that delayed ejaculation after 7-days can increase testosterone levels for a period. Other negative points are that masturbation can create passivity, anxiousness and addiction/dopamine dependency. Counter arguments to this are that the overall health benefits of relaxation and/or stress relief counter the negative effects. The likely argument would be moderation.
- Counter Arguments: "Masturbation is healthy", "Too much masturbation is unhealthy".
Porn is unhealthy -- Pornography and excessive hedonistic focus on sex have been highly criticised throughout history. Many religions seek to repress excessive sexuality and many political-movements have attempted to halt these practice -- a famous example being that of Nazi Germany, in which pornography and other sexually-explicit content was banned and/or removed from society. Many argue that porn can desensitise people (specifically young males) to normal sexual-activity, resulting in impotence or social-dysfunction towards women. Others argue that this is simply an ethical argument on the basis of prudishness and scare-mongering.
- Counter Arguments: "Porn is not unhealthy".
Fallacy: The Vee Fallacy Everything that is not genetic can be changed by society. "Nature is nurture, Vee" -JFG
- Haha, some hot subjects in there. JFG (talk) 17:00, 27 January 2022 (UTC)
- Not intentionally, I promise. These were just the things I had kicking around that I've seen with some supported counter-points. I have some more if that's okay, but I don't want to monopolise the Wanted Claims space too much. I am also working on an article. Hope to see some other ideas here soon and some more new articles. GrapeSkoda (talk) 02:17, 03 February 2022 (UTC)
- Haha, some hot subjects in there. JFG (talk) 17:00, 27 January 2022 (UTC)
Humans are monogamous -- A common disagreement on the breeding strategy of humans. Certain populations can be more or less r/K-selected depending on their ancestry, which correlates with facets such as impulsivity and conscientiousness. Comparing features of humans to other great apes (testicle size, level of sexual dimorphism) indicates that we may fall somewhere between the two, but lean more towards monogamy or few partners. There are some examples of polygamy, such as that of Radical Islam in countries like Saudi Arabia. Like many animals, there are occasions in which it is opportunistically advantageous for a male to be unfaithful to further spread his genes -- however this may be dangerous and less beneficial if the female or the partner of the other female finds out. Therefore, this can be relative to someone's willingness to gamble and take risks, e.g: A fast life history strategist.
- Counter Arguments: "Humans are polygamous", "Human mating habits vary greatly".
Women are hypergamous -- An argument on female psychology and mating-behaviour. Women will abandon a mate for one of greater value. This is relative and multivariate. For instance: A female may not abandon an attractive male with an average (survivable with some benefits) income, for an average male with a high-income, but is likely to abandon an average male with an average income for an attractive male with a high-income. Other facets include: personality, nurturing capability, investment in the partner, investment in children, etc. Various combinations of these facets can determine the likelihood of a female leaving her partner, including the personality, status and mate-value of the female herself. This argument is supported mostly by evolutionary strategy of female cost on partner-selection and ensuring the best genes for her off-spring.
- Counter Arguments: "Women are not hypergamous".
Men are unfaithful to women -- Men are more likely to abandon their children or cheat-on their partners. Due to r-Strategy being typically more advantageous to males, as it allows other opportunities to spread genes without direct consequence. Females may be denied the resources of their partner if found to be unfaithful. This behaviour is more likely in some populations than others, and there may be social-consequences which are ultimately a disadvantage to the male's reproductive success - for instance if the male attempts to do this, whilst maintaining his family relationship. In the even of being discovered in this situation, he may be denied nurture to his children. It would also likely have psychological effects on trust of all parties involved and reduce the fitness of his offspring as a result. This is less advantageous in climates with changing seasons, where resources become scarce and a K-strategy is heavily favoured. The inverse would be warmer climates, where numbers are favoured and resources are abundant.
- Counter Arguments: "Men are faithful to women", "Men are more unfaithful than women", "Men vary in their faithfulness to women".
SARS-CoV-2 is extremely fatal -- Evidence currently shows that Covid independently of comorbidity has an incredibly low fatality and long-term illness rate. Evidence also shows that even when met with comorbidity, it still has an over-all negligible effect. The virus appears to affect a very small portion of the population that will often have little time left.
- Counter Arguments: "SARS-CoV-2 is scarcely fatal".
The best protection against SARS-CoV-2 is to be boosted -- Evidence shows that boosters provide little more protection against most variants (64% against Omicron). It also shows that this protection only lasts from 3 to 6 months at strength. Compounded with potential side-effects, this is likely an unnecessary and potentially dangerous procedure. This may also be relative to your definition of "best". For instance, several propaganda campaigns in the UK have claimed that the booster is the "best" protection on the basis that it does provide the statistically highest for a short-period. However, this protection quickly depletes and in some studies has shown to drop into the negatives; becoming less protective than simply being single-jabbed or naturally immune.
- Counter Arguments: "The worst protection against SARS-CoV-2 is to be boosted", "The booster does not protect well against SARS-CoV-2".
The vaccines cause Myocarditis -- Statistics show that this occurs more frequently in young men. The speculation is that this may be caused by being given intravenously, and that the occurrence being more prevalent in young men is due to capillaries being larger due to muscle-growth during puberty. This may also potentially explain the incidents of injury and death amongst athletes and athletic people. There may be other explanations.
- Counter Arguments: "The vaccines do not cause myocarditis".
Cotton masks reduce transmission -- Evidence points towards masks having little to no effect on transmission in a controlled environment. This would almost certainly be null in an uncontrolled environment.
- Counter Arguments: "Cotton masks do not reduce transmission", "The effect of cotton-masks on viral transmission reduction is negligible".
Covid-19 was created in a lab -- The virus' structure indicates that there is a potential for laboratory modification, due to the likelihood of the natural-occurrence of said structure being low. Others argue simply that the virus exists due to Zoonotic transfer from bats to an unknown intermediate species, before finally transferring to humans.
- Counter Arguments: "Covid-19 is a natural occurrence", "Covid-19 came from a bat", "Covid-19 exists due to Zoonotic transfer".
- Counter Arguments: "Covid vaccines do not alter menstrual-cycles".
- Counter Arguments: "Covid vaccines do not cause infertility in men".
- Counter Arguments: "Covid vaccines do not cause infertility in women".
- Counter Arguments: "Fill".
- Counter Arguments: "Climate change is natural", "Climate change is mostly natural".
Women can't be Right-Wing -- Fill
- Counter Arguments: "Women can be Right-Wing".
Implants exhibit cellular memory -- Anecdotal cases of people receiving implants and behaving similarly to the person whom they received the implant from - a particular case being of a man receiving a heart-transplant from a suicide-victim, also going on to commit suicide despite no previous tendency or reason to do so.
- Counter Arguments: "Implants do not cause cellular memory".
Ghosts exist -- Very old argument regarding the supernatural.
- Counter Arguments: "Ghosts do not exist".
The Universe is cyclical -- Also known as Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A hypothesis on the creation of the Universe(s) posed by Roger Penrose in his book Cycles Of Time. This argument may be complex to refute, or simply be a regurgitation of Penrose's hypothesis in the supporting article. It likely requires uncommon and incredibly advanced esoteric knowledge on specific types of physics.
- Counter Arguments: "Time is not cyclical", -Various other hypothesis on the creation, death, existence or state of the universe that contradict this hypothesis.
Scientific Racism -- A false argument on Wikipedia undermining the credence and validity of scientific data and study, centred around or regarding facets that differ between populations. This may be a difficult task, as not only does the definition of "racism" appear to be inconsistent or false in and of itself (better categorised as ethnocentrism), but it is also relative to someone's own race, social-status, political-leanings, etc. The argument itself is arguably a political tool used to avoid uncomfortable scientific truths that may undermine any Marxist, Egalitarian, Leftist, Globalist, Internationalist or Clean-Slate ideologies that require differences amongst populations to be nullified in-order to implement.
- Counter Arguments: "The idea of Scientific Racism is a political tool", "Scientific Racism is a false categorisation".
The term Racism is ideological -- Arguments in Right-Wing circles that the idea of "Racism" in an of itself is an ideological weapon, designed to squash Nationalist sentiment. It is argued that the term originated in Trotsky's Russia, where he used it to dispel Nationalistic Russians who wished to preserve their people/genetic-frequency and culture. There is evidence "Ethnocentrism" is a mechanism evolved in humans, animals and some plants, to better find cooperative individuals and improve partner-selections. This mechanism increases its influence when oxytocin levels increase in the body. It appears to coincide with Koinophilia and Assortative mating -- as-well as evidence of genetic-similarity amongst best-friends and 3rd-Cousin relatedness amongst long-term romantic partners. Other evidence is that witnessing interracial-couples triggers the production of α-amylase enzymes in the saliva (indication of a disgust response).
- Counter Arguments: "The term Racism is not ideological".
A Refutation Of This Article -- It uses countless logical fallacies in order to push an ideological position on a biological reality: https://evolution-outreach.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12052-019-0109-y